The Help America Vote Act of 2002 (HAVA) was signed into law with the explicit goals of: (1) creating a program by which States could utilize federal funds to replace punch card voting systems, (2) establishing the Election Assistance Commission (EAC) to act as the administrator for Federal elections and provide assistance to States in the compliance with the new Federal election standards, and (3) establishing those new Federal standards for which the States would now have to abide. For New York State, the last State to conform to the new requirements and only after a court order was issued mandating that effect, the change to a new voting machine was long overdue. This change, however, brought with it issues of its own as the implementation of the new optical-Scan voting machines, especially given that voters had used the lever machines for decades.
Desaro, Matthew C., "The Optical Scan Voting Machine and The 65 and Older Staten Island Voter" (2011). Capstone Projects 2006 - 2015. 46.