Document Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Systems Science and Industrial Engineering

First Advisor

Dr. Sarah Lam


The ability to design and engineer complex and dynamical Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) requires a systematic view that requires a definition of level of automation intent for the system. Since CPS covers a diverse range of systemized implementations of smart and intelligent technologies networked within a system of systems (SoS), the terms “smart” and “intelligent” is frequently used in describing systems that perform complex operations with a reduced need of a human-agent. The difference between this research and most papers in publication on CPS is that most other research focuses on the performance of the CPS rather than on the correctness of its design. However, by using both human and machine agency at different levels of automation, or autonomy, the levels of automation have profound implications and affects to the reliability and safety of the CPS. The human-agent and the machine-agent are in a tidal lock of decision-making using both feedforward and feedback information flows in similar processes, where a transient shift within the level of automation when the CPS is operating can have undesired consequences. As CPS systems become more common, and higher levels of autonomy are embedded within them, the relationship between human-agent and machine-agent also becomes more complex, and the testing methodologies for verification and validation of performance and correctness also become more complex and less clear. A framework then is developed to help the practitioner to understand the difficulties and pitfalls of CPS designs and provides guidance to test engineering design of soft computational systems using combinations of modeling, simulation, and prototyping.