A radially accessible tubular in situ X-ray cell for spatially resolved operando scattering and spectroscopic studies of electrochemical energy storage devices

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in situ X-ray electrochemical cells, energy storage, batteries, capacitors, spatial resolution


A tubular operando electrochemical cell has been developed to allow spatially resolved X-ray scattering and spectroscopic measurements of individual cell components, or regions thereof, during device operation. These measurements are enabled by the tubular cell geometry, wherein the X-ray-transparent tube walls allow radial access for the incident and scattered/transmitted X-ray beam; by probing different depths within the electrode stack, the transformation of different components or regions can be resolved. The cell is compatible with a variety of synchrotron-based scattering, absorption and imaging methodologies. The reliability of the electrochemical cell and the quality of the resulting X-ray scattering and spectroscopic data are demonstrated for two types of energy storage: the evolution of the distribution of the state of charge of an Li-ion battery electrode during cycling is documented using X-ray powder diffraction, and the redistribution of ions between two porous carbon electrodes in an electrochemical double-layer capacitor is documented using X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy.


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Final version of the article available from the International Union of Crystallography via doi: 10.1107/S1600576716012632