Four years of excavations at the multi-component Ballynacree site (DkKp-8), located at the mouth of the Winnipeg River in northwestern Ontario, uncovered a large number of fur trade artifacts spanning virtually the entire period from initial French contact to the end of the fur trade era in the late 19th century. The clay pipe assemblage serves as an example of some unusual aspects of a major aboriginal village site, as opposed to a fur trade post site, as the quantities, time ranges, and types of pipes are at variance with those expected from such a site.
Reid, C.S. "Paddy"
"The Clay Pipe Assemblage from an 18- and 19th-Century Aboriginal Consumer Site in the Upper Mid-Continent,"
Northeast Historical Archaeology:
23, Article 5.
https://doi.org/10.22191/neha/vol23/iss1/5 Available at: https://orb.binghamton.edu/neha/vol23/iss1/5