Publication Date


Document Type



Is rampant discrimination inevitable in societies with ethnic diversity and a steady flow of migrants, immigrants, and refugees? It is well known that a society in which ethnic minorities face discriminatory practices is likely to experience ethnic tensions. However, it is less clear whether ethnic discrimination is more likely to occur in a more heterogeneous society. The culprit to ethnic tensions may lie in countries’ methods and laws involving the integration of newcomers — such as immigrants — into their societies. Though integration is supposedly a two-person job, oftentimes the receiving country places too much responsibility on newcomers, requiring more adaptation than they are able to make; a pertinent example is the Netherlands, which requires migrants to pay for the integration exams required to receive a residence permit, and will revoke an existing permit if they do not indicate the necessary level of knowledge. This project investigates whether increased ethnic diversity predicts greater levels of ethnic discrimination, specifically in the workplace, with an additional focus on the methods that countries employ to integrate newcomers into their societies. The level of ethnic discrimination in the workplace will be determined by analyzing the U.S. State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, reports compiled for every country that analyze the shortcomings and strengths of countries’ adherence to human rights. Using the coding guidelines from the Cingranelli and Richards (CIRI) Human Rights Data Project, this project will assign scores to countries’ ethnic discrimination and draw comparisons with the country’s level of diversity, which is determined by a Fractionalization Index. This measure of ethnic heterogeneity assesses the probability of two randomly selected individuals in society belonging to different ethnolinguistic groups. Furthermore, this study will analyze the laws and methods of several countries’ integration processes to further understand their state of ethnic discrimination and — potentially — its cause.



Download Full Text (1.3 MB)

Ethnic Diversity, Integration, and their Implications