Document Type


Date of Award



Nuclear charge, Tantalum

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Sol Raboy

Second Advisor

Newton Greenberg

Third Advisor

Charles A. Nelson


The energies of the x rays emitted by the muonic atom of 181Ta were measured by a Ge(Li) solid state detector. From the clustering of these gamma rays it was possible to identify the transitions of the muonic atom which produced them. When a form is chosen for the nuclear charge distribution, a theoretical spectrum can be calculated…The parameters 𝛽, c, and t can then be chosen to make the calculated spectrum coincide for the 3D-2P, and 2P-1S transitions with the observed spectrum.

The first part of the calculation was performed in the following way. The monopole part of the electrostatic interaction, corrected for vacuum polarization, is used in the Dirac equation. Then the electric quadrupole interaction term is diagonalized in the basis formed by the Dirac solutions and the nuclear wave functions. This prescription assumes a nuclear rotational model to be valid and takes no account of the small magnetic dipole interaction. In the diagonalization process no matrix elements connecting states of different principal quantum number, n, are calculated since these terms are second order effects.

Some recent work has shown a way to include these terms. A method of introducing these correction terms in a relativistically consistent way was developed and programmed.

Using this program, sets of values for c, t, and 𝛽 were calculated which satisfy the x-ray data.

Included in

Physics Commons