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leader emergence, speaking time, babble hypothesis, individual differences


The large, positive correlation between speaking time and leader emergence is well-established. As such, some authors have argued for a ``babble hypothesis'' of leadership, suggesting that only the quantity of speaking, not its quality, determines leader emergence. However, previous tests of this notion may have been problematic. Some studies have asserted a causal effect of speaking time on leader emergence based on experimental studies, but have limited participant communication, access to reliable information, or both. Other studies have used more ecologically valid designs, but have not always controlled for relevant participant traits or roles, suggesting potential endogeneity effects. Testing the babble hypothesis thus requires a study that is both ecologically valid and supports strong inference. The current study fills that gap and finds that speaking time retains its direct effect on leader emergence when accounting for intelligence, personality, gender, and the endogeneity of speaking time.


The research described herein was sponsored by the U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, Department of the Army (Grant No. W911NF-17-1-0221). The views expressed in this archive are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Army, DOD, or the U.S. Government.

Data Updated July 21, 2020

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Final version published by Elsevier's Science Direct and can be found at

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.