D. Brad Hatch


Trade played a crucial role in the relationships that formed between European colonists and Native Americans during the early colonial period. In the 17th-century Potomac River valley the interactions between Native Americans and Europeans laid the foundations for the emergence of a truly creolized society. Much of the research on these relationships has focused on Maryland contexts and post-1660 contexts on Virginia’s Northern Neck. This paper examines the influence of Native Americans on the early settlement of Virginia’s Potomac Valley using the Hallowes site (44MW6) as an example. Skeletal-portion and age-distribution analyses of the deer remains at the site and a rich historical context are used to indicate trading relationships that existed between the residents of the site and local Native Americans. Through this trade, and the interaction it facilitated, people like John Hallowes participated in the increasingly complex intercultural relationships that defined the early Chesapeake.