Samples of wood excavated from the Fort Lennox National Historic Site, on Île-aux-Noix in the Upper Richelieu River, were entrusted to Université Laval by Parks Canada for tree-ring analysis in 2004. These samples consisted primarily of coniferous species, namely 29 samples of white cedar (Thuja occidentals), 18 of white pine (Pinus strobus), and a single sample of hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). Tree-ring and historical data suggest an alternative explanation for the use of this wood than that originally proposed by archaeologists. The wood originally was thought to have been part of a late 18th-century structure that was torn down, and the wood thrown into a water-filled ditch during site renovations in 1812–1814. In fact, the deposit may be associated with preparations for the construction of Fort Lennox in 1819.