Article Title

The Many Faces of Fort George National Historic Site of Canada: Insights into a Historic Fort’s Transformation


Fort George National Historic Site of Canada is situated in the picturesque town of Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada. Constructed by the British following the capitulation of Fort Niagara, Fort George is of national historic significance because it served as the Headquarters of the Central Division of the British Army, and played a crucial role in the defence of Upper Canada during the War of 1812. Archaeological investigations in the last 50 years have shed light on the fort’s early structures and modifications. In 2009, funding allocated through the Federal Economic Action Plan provided an opportunity to further explore the fort’s historic transformation. The following paper will present the findings from archaeological investigations and mitigation conducted at Fort George from 2009 to 2010 and delve into the nature of Fort George’s early landscape, construction techniques of the British Royal Engineers, early occupations of the site, and the defensive alterations undertaken by the Americans during the War of 1812.

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