Author ORCID Identifier

George Homsy:

Mildred E. Warner:

Document Type


Publication Date



local government, US, curbside collection, unit-based waste pricing


This study investigates the drivers of curbside recycling program adoption and Pay as You Throw (PAYT) program adoption in 1,856 US local governments using a 2015 survey. While 50% of municipalities and counties adopt curbside recycling programs, we find that the adoption curbside recycling is limited by capacity constraints; local governments with lower per capita expenditures and more poverty are less likely to implement curbside recycling. PAYT programs are less common overall (10% of municipalities) and less common in richer communities and more common in communities with higher education levels. Local official political affiliation is not significant in either model. Both programs are less likely in rural places. Our results point to the need for local governments adopting such innovations to address equity, capacity constraints, and efficiency concerns.

Publisher Attribution

This is a post-peer review, pre-publisher version of an article published in Resources, Conservation, and Recycling. The published version can be found at

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.



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