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Stress is a known risk factor for depression (Santee, 2023). Previous research has indicated that depression increases risk for additional stress in particular, interpersonal stress, a process known as stress generation (Hammen, 2008). It is unclear however if vulnerabilities for depression might also increase risk for stress generation. Brooding rumination, a type of negative self-referential thinking, has been identified as a risk factor for depression (Hilt & Pollak, 2013). This study examined whether brooding rumination predicts an increase in stress generation in children over a 6 month perio. Participants were 8-14 year old children and their mothers. Mothers were required to have a history of major depressive disorder during the children’s lives or no history of any depressive disorder. UCLA Episodic Life Stress Interviews were used to assess levels of dependent stress at two time points, six months apart. Children’s levels of brooding rumination were assessed using a self-report questionnaire at the first time point. Analyses revealed that higher levels of brooding rumination significantly predicted an increase in levels of dependent stress over the 6 month period, suggesting that brooding can lead to stress generation in children.



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The Impact of Brooding Rumination on Stress Generation in Youth