Publication Date


Document Type



In the twentieth century, two well-known models, the Kinsey Homosexual-Heterosexual Scale and the Klein Sexual Orientation Grid (KSOG), were proposed to capture the complexity of sexual orientation. Though groundbreaking at the time of their conception, further research has concluded that the scales are flawed, and do not account for many aspects of sexuality. This has been reflected in several studies where subjects expressed their discontent with the current systems of measurement, due to limitations in communicating their sexual orientation and the identification process. For many people, sexuality can fluctuate throughout their lives, and the labeling systems that exist for sexual orientation are restrictive. The perception of homosexuality and how it is affected by norms of masculinity can also impact peoples' own views of their sexual orientation. Patterns reflected over the past eighty years show that the scales are no longer completely representative of sexuality, and these factors further complicate an already complex aspect of human life.



Download Full Text (610 KB)

How Do People Understand and Communicate Their Sexuality?: Application of Labels and the Sexuality Spectrum