Author ORCID Identifier

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Nobel, Kaelin, Ratcliffe, Semenza, Oxygen, HIF, VHL


Gregg L. Semenza, William G Kaelin, Jr, and Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe were awarded the 2019 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine on October 7, 2019. Their work led to the understanding of how cells recognize and adapt to varying oxygen levels. Hypoxia-inducible nuclear factors play an essential role in this mechanism by turning on other genes that work towards increasing oxygen levels in hypoxic environments. Other vital pieces of the machinery include von Hippel-Lindau proteins and prolyl hydroxylation. Due to the necessity of oxygen in numerous human physiological systems, this discovery will likely have nearly immeasurable impacts on human health.


File updated November 2021.

Publisher Attribution

Gilman, Neyda V. (2020). Analyses of the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine: Molecular Machinery for Cellular Oxygen Level Response. Science & Technology Libraries, 1-27.



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