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Bacteremia ; Bloodstream infection ; Dalbavancin ; Injection drug use ; Glycopeptides ; Staphylococcus ; Streptococcus


Introduction Long-acting lipoglycopeptides such as dalbavancin may have utility in patients with Gram-positive bloodstream infections (BSI), particularly in those with barriers to discharge or who require prolonged parenteral antibiotic courses. A retrospective cohort study was performed to provide further multicenter real-world evidence on dalbavancin use as a sequential therapy for Gram-positive BSI. Methods One hundred fifteen patients received dalbavancin with Gram-positive BSI, defined as any positive blood culture or diagnosed with infective endocarditis, from 13 centers geographically spread across the United States between July 2015 and July 2021. Results Patients had a mean (SD) age of 48.5 (17.5) years, the majority were male (54%), with many who injected drugs (40%). The most common infection sources (non-exclusive) were primary BSI (89%), skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) (25%), infective endocarditis (19%), and bone and joint infection (17%). Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 72% of index cultures, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus accounted for 18%, and Streptococcus species in 16%. Dalbavancin started a median (Q1–Q3) of 10 (6–19) days after index culture collection. The most common regimen administered was dalbavancin 1500 mg as one dose for 50% of cases. The primary outcome of composite clinical failure occurred at 12.2%, with 90-day mortality at 7.0% and 90-day BSI recurrence at 3.5%. Conclusions Dalbavancin may serve as a useful tool in facilitating hospital discharge in patients with Gram-positive BSI. Randomized controlled trials are anticipated to validate dalbavancin as a surrogate to current treatment standards.


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Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License