Author ORCID Identifier

Document Type


Date of Award



SERS, Biosensor, SARS-CoV-2, H1N1, Raman Spectroscopy, Multiplexing, Nanoprobe

Degree Name

Chemistry: ACS Certified (BS)



First Advisor

Dr. Chaun Zhong


Science and Mathematics

Subject Heading(s)

Gold -- Diagnostic use ; Raman effect, Surface enhanced ; H1N1 influenza -- Detection


The Influenza virus infected over 36 million people in 2019, whereas the COVID-19
virus caused a deadly pandemic that has infected over 700 million people to date. Both viruses share a magnitude of similar symptoms, which presents a key challenge for the need of a highly sensitive and selective biosensors that can simultaneously detect the specific biomarkers for each of these viruses. This work focuses on developing a Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based biosensor for detecting protein biomarkers related to the two viruses such as H1N1 and S- protein. Gold nanoparticles are used for SERS signal amplification. The objective of this work is to determine the use of gold nanoparticles to enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of the biosensor in a multiplexed detection of the two different proteins in solutions. The nanoparticles are conjugated with different Raman reporters and capture/detection antibodies for SERS detection. The results demonstrated that the SERS intensity increases with the protein biomarker concentrations. The results also demonstrated the viability of using SERS for the multiplexed detection of the mixed proteins in the solution. The findings will be discussed, along with future experiments to analyze more than two protein biomarkers at one time, ultimately improving the multiplexing capability.

Available for download on Sunday, May 04, 2025

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